Veterinarians are using advanced forensic techniques and the same technology used by crime scene investigators to monitor drug residues in milk and meat. They are working with producers to strengthen food safety and make sure animals are medicated properly.
Working with a gene that plays a critical role in HIV infection, researchers have discovered that some human genes have an alternate set of operating instructions written into their protein-making machinery. The alternate instructions can quickly alter the proteins' contents, functions and ability to survive.
The warm beauty of amber was captivating and mysterious enough to inspire myths in ancient times, and even today, some of its secrets remain locked inside the fossilized tree resin. But for the first time, scientists have now solved at least one of its puzzles that had perplexed them for decades.
In chambers that mimic Mars' conditions, researchers have shown how small amounts of liquid water could form on the planet despite its below-freezing temperatures. A type of salt present in Martian soil can readily melt ice it touches. But this Martian salt cannot, as some scientists suggested, form liquid water by sucking vapor out of the air through a process called deliquescence.
Cocoa farmers will lose an estimated 30 to 40 percent of their crop to pests and disease this year. With chocolate prices having risen globally by roughly two-thirds in the past decade, concern is growing about sustainability in cocoa production. But scientists have found a safe, biodegradable potential alternative to the hazardous antifungal agents currently being used to combat one of the most damaging cacao diseases.
Testing for cocaine and other drugs usually involves two steps: a quick on-site prescreen, and then a more accurate confirmatory test at a distant laboratory. Now, researchers report development of a backpack-sized device that can perform highly accurate and sensitive tests anywhere within 15 minutes.
Previously, there was no unified system of reference for calibrating the heavens. But now, when investigating the atmospheric structure and chemical make-up of stars, astronomers can use a new stellar scale as a “ruler” – making it much easier for them to classify and compare data on star discoveries.
The molecular building blocks that make up DNA absorb ultraviolet light so strongly that sunlight should deactivate them– yet it does not. Now scientists have made detailed observations of a “relaxation response” that protects these molecules, and the genetic information they encode, from UV damage.
For the last five years, a research team has been doing something no group has done before— they have engineered, designed and built an instrument, the size of which fills an entire laboratory, to study how chemical warfare agents react on surfaces.
The humble blowfly could lead to better detection of methamphetamine (MA) in decomposing tissue. Research has explored the effect of MA on the development, growth rates and survival of the blowfly in relation to estimating post-mortem intervals.
New research shows that enormous lakes that existed in the western U.S. during the peak of the last Ice Age grew large because of a cooler climate and a reduced evaporation rate. The finding could help improve computer simulations of climate change.
New research reveals how the algae behind red tide thoroughly disables– but doesn’t kill– other species of algae. The study shows how chemical signaling between algae can trigger big changes in the marine ecosystem.
Surface catalysts are notoriously difficult to study mechanistically, but scientists have shown how to get real-time reaction information from Ag nanocatalysts that have long frustrated attempts to describe their kinetic behavior in detail.
Years after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil spill, as oil continues to wash ashore as "sand patties" and persists in salt marshes abutting the Gulf of Mexico, questions remain about how much oil has really been deposited on the seafloor.
A new study identified specific phenolic compounds found in the petals of indigenous rose species and compared them with the phenolic profiles of modern rose cultivars to determine differences in the makeup of roses traditionally used for medicinal purposes and those varieties cherished for aesthetic qualities.
Melanin— and specifically, the form called eumelanin— is the primary pigment that gives humans the coloring of their skin, hair and eyes. It protects the body from the hazards of ultraviolet and other radiation that can damage cells and lead to skin cancer, but the exact reason why the compound is so effective at blocking such a broad spectrum of sunlight has remained, until now, something of a mystery.
In all organisms, reduction-oxidation — or "redox" — regulation is essential for many biological processes. Key to understanding these processes is being able to determine how the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, which occur in this case on their cysteine residues, contribute to creating "redox switches" capable of regulating protein functions.
Reseachers found unexpected traces of water in semiconducting nanocrystals. The water, as a source of small ions for the surface of colloidal lead sulfide nanoparticles, allowed the team to explain just how the surface of these important particles are passivated, meaning how they achieve an overall balance of positive and negative ions.
Researchers have developed an improved chemical analysis method that is more efficient and faster in detecting counterfeit medications, which have skyrocketed in recent years. The method identifies and quantifies the various compounds present in a pharmaceutical product, in a fifth of the time it takes governmental services to do the same job.
New analysis of ancient Jian wares reveals the distinctive pottery contains an unexpected and highly unusual form of iron oxide. This rare compound was only recently discovered and characterized by scientists and, so far, has been extremely difficult to create with modern techniques.
As smartphones get smarter and computers compute faster, researchers actively search for ways to speed up the processing of information. Now, scientists have made a step forward in developing a new class of materials that could be used in future technologies.